一月, 2014 的封存

I. Parallelism

  1. He doesn’t ride, nor shoot, nor fish, nor swim.
  2. We can gain knowledge by reading, by reflection, by observation or by practice.
  3. He knows a good thing; he knows a safe thing.
  4. Their sunburned faces were dark, and their sun-whipped eyes were light.
  5. Their powers of conversation were considerable. They could describe an entertainment with accuracy, relate an anecdote with humor, and laught at their acquaintance with spirit.
  6. No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy.
  7. Little drops of water,

Little grains of sand,

Make the mighty ocean,

And the pleasant land.

8. The cock is crowing,

The stream is flowing,

The small birds twitter,

The lake doth glitter.

9. The seed ye sow, another reaps;

The wealth ye find, another keeps;

The robe ye weave, another wears;

The arm ye forge, another bears.

II. Antithesis/Contrast

  1. Not that I loved Caesar less, but I loved Rome more.
  2. In the face of sickness, health is wonderful.
  3. He that has never hoped can never despair.
  4. The skyscraper is highest but the foundation is shakiest.
  5. No life, no death.
  6. Work is cheap, but bread is dear.
  7. To say is easy, but to do is hard.
  8. Be slow of tongue, and quick of eye.
  9. Easy come, easy go.
  10. Adversity reveals genius; fortune conceals it.
  11. Out of sight, out of mind.
  12. Penny wise, pound foolish.
  13. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness; it was the epoch of belief, it was the era of incredulity; it was the season of light, it was the season of darkness; it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair; we had everything before us, we had nothing before us.
  14. Give me liberty, or give me death!
  15. No bees, no honey; no work, no money.
  16. Grief counts the second; happiness forgets the hours.
  17. Absence sharpens love, presence strengthens it.
  18. A fair face may hide a foul heart.
  19. Soon learnt, soon forgotten; soon ripe, soon rotten.
  20. In the mirror, we see the face; in wine, the heart.
  21. There are tears for his love; joy for his fortune; honor for his valor; and death for his ambition.

 

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III. Repetition/Reiteration

  1. Oh, the dreary, dreary moorland!  Oh, the barren, barren shore!
  2. We shall overcome, we shall overcome, we shall overcome some day.
  3. She was seventeen years old then, and a very beautiful girl, very beautiful, very beautiful.
  4. Gold! Gold! Gold! Gold! Bright and yellow, hard and cold,…
  5. Home! Home! Sweet home! There’s no place like home!
  6. But there was a difference, a vital difference.
  7. It’s their wealth and security that makes everything possible, makes your art possible, makes literature, science, and even religion possible.
  8. Tell me the tales that to me were so dear

Long, long ago, long, long ago;

Sing me the song I delighted to hear,

Long, long ago, long, long ago.

9. Farewell to the mountains high covered with snow!

Farewell to the streams and green valleys below!

Farewell to the forests and wild-hanging woods!

Farewell to the torrents and loud-pouring floods!

IV. Rhetorical Question

  1. What business is it of yours? You mind your own affairs.
  2. What’s the good of that? That’s the sort of trick they served me twice last week.
  3. Is not China a big country?
  4. Will they cower before difficulties when they are not afraid of death?
  5. Who can bear such an insult?
  6. Can a man be too cruel to his mother’s enemy?

V. Inversion/Anastrophe

  1. Come frightful days of snow and rain. He did not know when he made camp, when he broke camp.
  2. Again returned the scenes of youth.
  3. Most stirring are speeches like those by Churchill.
  4. Happy shall I be when his stay at Netherfield is over!
  5. All this we must take fully into account.
  6. Chinese she can speak.
  7. In came a man with a white beard.
  8. Away ran the girls, too eager to get in to have time for speech.
  9. Not until then did he realize his own fault.
  10. Only by working hard can we achieve the aim.
  11. Not a single sail had we sighted since we weighed anchor.
  12. Up the road came a sound of creaking axles, and then a slow cloud of dust, and then a bull-cart bearing Ransie Bilbro and his wife.
  13. Scattered like stars in the deep mountains are numerous reservoirs and ponds.
  14. Involved were the right of a speaker to speak and in particular the right of the faculty and students to listen–and think and question.
  15. Last year he got acquainted with a young teacher, and this young teacher he was to work with in the coming five years.
  16. My opinion of the coal trade on that river is, that it may require talent, but it certainly requires capital. Talent, Mr. Micawber has; capital, Mr. Micawber has not.

 

VI. Gradation (climax & anticlimax)

  1. The audience smiled, chuckled, and finally howled.
  2. I am sorry. I am so sorry. I am so extremely sorry.
  3. The book has a power, so to speak, a very exceptional power in fact, one may say without exaggeration it is the most powerful book of the month.
  4. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.
  5. He has gone; he has escaped; he has broken away.
  6. We honored him, we trusted him, and we loved him.
  7. Let’s face it. Let’s talk sense to the American people. Let’s tell them that there are no gains without pains.
  8. I came. I saw. I conquered.
  9. David was a great statesman, a great warrior, a great poet, and a skillful performer on the harp.
  10. She fears thunder and lightning, she fears dogs and cats, she fears moths and caterpillars.

VII. Catchword Repetition

  1. Now, what I want is, facts. Teach these boys and girls nothing but facts. Facts alone are wanted in life.
  2. Success breeds complacency; complacency breeds laziness; laziness breeds failure.
  3. Margot looked at them both and they both saw that she was going to cry.
  4. Three fishers went sailing out into the West. Out into the West, as the sun went down.

VIII. Zeugma

  1. weeping eyes and hearts; to wage war and peace; …when I and my sorrows are dust.
  2. This murderer killed the boy and his parents’ only hope.
  3. She opened the door and her heart to the homeless boy.
  4. At noon Mrs. Turpin would get out of bed and humor, put on the kimono, and the water to boil for coffee.
  5. He picked up his hat and his courage.
  6. He lost the game and his temper.
  7. She dropped a tear and her pocket handkerchief.
  8. He halted in the district where by night are found the lightest street, hearts, vows and librettos.
  9. He swallowed bread and butter and a spasm of emotion.
  10. He caught a bus and a cold.

IX. Aposiopesis

  1. It is for you to accept the things. Supposing you refuse–
  2. My God! If the police come…, find me here…
  3. You’d better do it or else…
  4. “If I see him so much as put his foot on the grass…,” he thought.
  5. Augustus: By no means, madam. It matters very much indeed. If this spy were to obtain possession of the list, Blueloo would tell the story at every dinner table in London; and…      The Lady: And you might lose your post. Of course.

X. Ellipsis

  1. The scenery was beautiful, and the acting superb.
  2. I went to Oxford as one goes into exile; she to London.
  3. Let those who can serve as teachers.
  4. If not today, tomorrow I am sure you will get an answer.
  5. John opened the door, Harry was waiting, they drove away.
  6. He felt no fear: he was a brave man.
  7. He was busy, he could not come.
  8. Small showers last long, sudden storms are short.
  9. Augustus: Hello! Who are you?

The Clerk: The staff.

Augustus: You the staff! What do you mean, man?

The Clerk: What I say. There isn’t anybody else.

Augustus: Where are the others?

The Clerk: At the front.

Augustus: Quite right. Most proper. Why aren’t you at the front?

The Clerk: Overage. Fifty-seven.

 XI. Quotation

  1. As the proverb says, “To know someone by repute is not as good as meeting him face to face” or “Seeing is believing.”
  2. There is a proverb, “Sing different songs on different mountains.”
  3. It is truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife.
  4. You want your pound of flesh, don’t you?
  5. And the discovery that she was the owner of a disposition so purely that of the dog in the manger had something in it which at first made her ashamed.

 XII. Apostrophe

  1. Can you see me, papa? I’m your own little girl. If this isn’t your bed, you can look down and know the flowers are meant for you, and know this is your little girl, and she loves you.
  2. O Cuckoo! Shall I call thee bird.   Or but a wonderful voice?
  3. Oh, Tiber!…You’d only be a suckling in that mighty land! And as for you, sweet Thames, flow gently till I end my song: flow gently, gentle Thames, speak softly and politely, Little Thames, flow gently till I end my song.

Rhetoric–Using exact verbs

Posted: 2014 年 01 月 23 日 in Rhetoric
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I. Walk

  1. At last we caught sight of him plodding up the road in the deep snow and looking very weary.
  2. The boat had to stay a little way out from the shore, so the fishermen had to wade through the water to us.
  3. When he heard what we had done, he went stampering off down the corridor in a terrible temper.
  4. His face withered. In the strenuousness of his concentration he paced fitfully up and down the room.
  5. He hardly lifted his feet from the ground, but shuffled along in a lazy fashion, scattering the leaves in every direction.
  6. The horrible sense of his view of her so deadened her that she staggered, and he stepped forward, thinking she was going to fall.
  7. He opened the gate himself and sauntered slowly up, probably enjoying the lovely afternoon that breathed as soft as summer.
  8. No sooner had the bus arrived at the beach than the children got off and scampered away on the sand.
  9. The fat lady, undermined by fever, could not swagger any more, but kept tottering about, until she finally collapsed on the chair.
  10. swagger, hobble, stroll, tiptoe, amble, stride, trudge, prance, clump

II. Move

  1. Just where the carriages trundled across the market was a row of fruit stalls, with fruit blazing in the sun.
  2. “Now look at that silly cow,” she said, “careering round as if it thought it was in a circus.”
  3. His heart thumped, and he felt hot all over at the thought of that danger.
  4. She rolled her eyes round the young men with a long sweep of her painted eyelashes, and flashed her yellow teeth at them.
  5. Clare performed the irrelevant act of stirring the fire; the intelligence had not even yet got to the bottom of him.
  6. At last after a fury of plunges he wrenched himself free.

 

GRE template for argumentation

Posted: 2014 年 01 月 10 日 in Writing
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There is a growing public concern over the issue of _____. At first glance, this opinion seems to be somewhat appealing, but further reflection tells me quite the other way. After contemplation, we see clearly the invalidity of this argument. Actually, the final judgment should rely on a case-by-case analysis, and I advocate that _____. My view can be greatly substantiated by the following discussions.

First and foremost, this argument rests on a gratuitous assumption that _____. The fact that A and B showed up together may be significant, but it could also be an innocent coincidence. In other words, these two incidents have no correlation between them. Frankly, I wonder what the root causes are. Have the investigator taken into consideration whether there is any other essential element, such as _____? Based on my experience, the factors trigger _____. Yet none of them are mentioned in _____. If it is really due to _____, then undoubtedly _____. But if _____ or _____ is the root cause of that, then we can draw a totally different conclusion. If the study omits something important, it may turn out fruitless. Any of these scenarios, if true, would show that _____. Therefore, this argument is unwarranted without ruling out such possibility. In fact, human beings are prone to making the inaccurate causal correlations. In specific, they tend to be influenced by the vividness and immediacy of what they see, and adhere strongly to their beliefs, even in the face of the contradictory evidence. Hence the author should contemplate more aspects and do further studies to make his statement more conceivable.

Second of all, the evidence is insufficient to support the conclusion. So far, the investigators only provide one survey that _____. As I see it, these samples may not be diverse and representative enough to bolster the conclusion that _____. It could take more than twenty years to sort out all the scientific issues related to _____. Unless more empirical evidence is uncovered, we should not jump to such a broad conclusion about _____. Strictly speaking, in face of such limited evidence, it is fallacious to draw any conclusion at all.

In the third place, the argument has also committed a false analogy fallacy. The author infers that _____ on the grounds that _____. Known to everyone, time keeps changing, so does the circumstance. As I see it, what worked for _____ in the past will not necessarily work for _____ in the future. _____ and _____ may have different backgrounds and conditions. For instance, these two _____ may have different _____, such as _____, _____, and so on.

Fourthly, the conclusion unjustifiably relies on the poll while the validity of the survey is in doubt. Was it conducted by the authoritative institute? Has the study ever been published in a credible journal? If not, I would doubt the legitimacy of the study. Any assertion supported by this unreliable study would not be persuasive.

Finally, to fully evaluate the argument, we need to ask the following questions. _____. Unless the author presents the more concrete answers for these questions, the argument is not conceivable.

To sum up, when the pros and cons of A and B are carefully examined, the most striking conclusion is obvious that _____. Admittedly, it may be true that _____ in some conditions. Nevertheless, this alone does not constitute a sufficient support to claim that _____. So far, the conclusion is solely based on the assumption and hypothesis without physical evidence. Apparently, in order to make the argument logically acceptable, the author should demonstrate, instead of his belief and observation, a reliable investigation with statistics and successful cases. Before such solid evidence is found, we may not be comfortable to declare that _____. The arguer should also illustrate that _____ to make this argument favorable. Since the author commits the logical mistakes and fails to consider the whole situation comprehensively, his ideas should not be adopted. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, which sometimes intertwine to form an organic whole and thus become more cogent, we may safely arrive at the conclusion I support— _____.

Model sentences–7. 問題/比較

Posted: 2014 年 01 月 10 日 in Writing
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XV. 問題

1.   It is wrong for parents to make every decision for their sons and daughters.

2.   It’s naïve to say that everyone is able to do whatever is right in his own eyes.

3.   I don’t see the point in paying good money for a suit you rarely wear.

4.   We all know how difficult it is to remember new words when learning English.

5.   Lack of food has undermined his strength.

6.   Traffic, everyone knows, is one of the bigger hassles of modern life.

7.   Air pollution in this area, I understand, is quite serious.

8.   Some of the problems with university admissions must be solved.

9.   Although these chances are usually intended to be beneficial, they may produce side effects.

10. Although television could, if used creatively, enrich the activities of children and families, it now only undermines them.

11.  People making long commutes are at a higher risk for a host of maladies.

12.  We certainly need laws, but the cure comes not from laws but from the transforming of the human heart.

13.  No one can possibly achieve any real and lasting success by conforming to conventional ways of thinking.

14.  It’s worth remembering that IQ isn’t quite the same thing as intelligence.

15.  The long-term consequences of inactivity are quite serious to the well-being of our population.

16.  Competition may lead to unexpected problems.

17.  Inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviors cause at least 30,000 avoidable deaths each year in the US.

18.  The burning of high-sulfur coal produces a poisonous drizzle, which affects 30% of the world.

19.  Every day, factories and automobiles put harmful gases into the air, which causes air pollution.

20.  TV viewing has an undesirable/detrimental effect on the reading habits of children.

21.  Students will be deprived of the opportunities to grow in nonacademic areas.

22.  In a dormitory, you often run into people with conflicting lifestyles.

23.  “Forgetting” is often cited as a negative for the traditional school-time schedule that includes a long vacation each year.

24.  The world grows globally; you won’t get far in business and finance today without a thorough understanding and vision.

25.  Child development experts are wondering whether this rich diet of extracurricular activities might make some kids sick.

26.  Some experts charge that the enrichment efforts can actually be counterproductive to child’s overall learning experience.

27.  Some people are afraid that technology will dehumanize schools and isolate students.

28.  The power and versatility of digital technology will raise new concerns about individual privacy and commercial confidentiality.

29.  An alarming number of rivers and lakes in Eastern Europe are ecologically dead.

30.  Many changes always involve tradeoffs, and the benefits of the information society will carry costs.

31.  From women’s point of view, this custom is outdated.

32.  From the student’s standpoint, these exams are too hard.

33.  For too many young people today, citizenship is an abstract concept.

34.  In spite of many years of research, many questions remain unanswered, and many answers remain questionable.

XVI. 比較

1.   Regular exercise is as important as dietary habits./ They are equally important.

2.   People in Asia enjoy the same McDonald’s and surf the Internet as their counterpart in America.

3.   Some universities give the same amount of money to their students’ sports activities as they give to their university libraries.

4.   The process of doing something is more important than the final product.

5.   Some hand-made items are superior in many respects to machine-made ones.

6.   Clothes that are deemed handsome in one period are declared downright ugly in the next.

7.   To some Turks, wearing Western attire instead of traditional garments was akin to heresy.

8.   Attending a live performance is more enjoyable than watching the same event on television.

9.   Studying with a group has/provides/produces/generates more benefits than problems.

10. Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher.

11. It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big city.

12. Studies have shown that crime rates on campus are generally lower than those outside campus.

13. Left-handed people are more likely to succeed in business than right-handed people.

14. We have been recycling twice as much aluminum and paper as we did in previous years.

15. The cure rate among patients in this hospital is about twice that of the Clapton hospital.