Archive for the ‘Writing’ Category

GRE template for argumentation

Posted: 2014 年 01 月 10 日 in Writing
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There is a growing public concern over the issue of _____. At first glance, this opinion seems to be somewhat appealing, but further reflection tells me quite the other way. After contemplation, we see clearly the invalidity of this argument. Actually, the final judgment should rely on a case-by-case analysis, and I advocate that _____. My view can be greatly substantiated by the following discussions.

First and foremost, this argument rests on a gratuitous assumption that _____. The fact that A and B showed up together may be significant, but it could also be an innocent coincidence. In other words, these two incidents have no correlation between them. Frankly, I wonder what the root causes are. Have the investigator taken into consideration whether there is any other essential element, such as _____? Based on my experience, the factors trigger _____. Yet none of them are mentioned in _____. If it is really due to _____, then undoubtedly _____. But if _____ or _____ is the root cause of that, then we can draw a totally different conclusion. If the study omits something important, it may turn out fruitless. Any of these scenarios, if true, would show that _____. Therefore, this argument is unwarranted without ruling out such possibility. In fact, human beings are prone to making the inaccurate causal correlations. In specific, they tend to be influenced by the vividness and immediacy of what they see, and adhere strongly to their beliefs, even in the face of the contradictory evidence. Hence the author should contemplate more aspects and do further studies to make his statement more conceivable.

Second of all, the evidence is insufficient to support the conclusion. So far, the investigators only provide one survey that _____. As I see it, these samples may not be diverse and representative enough to bolster the conclusion that _____. It could take more than twenty years to sort out all the scientific issues related to _____. Unless more empirical evidence is uncovered, we should not jump to such a broad conclusion about _____. Strictly speaking, in face of such limited evidence, it is fallacious to draw any conclusion at all.

In the third place, the argument has also committed a false analogy fallacy. The author infers that _____ on the grounds that _____. Known to everyone, time keeps changing, so does the circumstance. As I see it, what worked for _____ in the past will not necessarily work for _____ in the future. _____ and _____ may have different backgrounds and conditions. For instance, these two _____ may have different _____, such as _____, _____, and so on.

Fourthly, the conclusion unjustifiably relies on the poll while the validity of the survey is in doubt. Was it conducted by the authoritative institute? Has the study ever been published in a credible journal? If not, I would doubt the legitimacy of the study. Any assertion supported by this unreliable study would not be persuasive.

Finally, to fully evaluate the argument, we need to ask the following questions. _____. Unless the author presents the more concrete answers for these questions, the argument is not conceivable.

To sum up, when the pros and cons of A and B are carefully examined, the most striking conclusion is obvious that _____. Admittedly, it may be true that _____ in some conditions. Nevertheless, this alone does not constitute a sufficient support to claim that _____. So far, the conclusion is solely based on the assumption and hypothesis without physical evidence. Apparently, in order to make the argument logically acceptable, the author should demonstrate, instead of his belief and observation, a reliable investigation with statistics and successful cases. Before such solid evidence is found, we may not be comfortable to declare that _____. The arguer should also illustrate that _____ to make this argument favorable. Since the author commits the logical mistakes and fails to consider the whole situation comprehensively, his ideas should not be adopted. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, which sometimes intertwine to form an organic whole and thus become more cogent, we may safely arrive at the conclusion I support— _____.

Model sentences–7. 問題/比較

Posted: 2014 年 01 月 10 日 in Writing
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XV. 問題

1.   It is wrong for parents to make every decision for their sons and daughters.

2.   It’s naïve to say that everyone is able to do whatever is right in his own eyes.

3.   I don’t see the point in paying good money for a suit you rarely wear.

4.   We all know how difficult it is to remember new words when learning English.

5.   Lack of food has undermined his strength.

6.   Traffic, everyone knows, is one of the bigger hassles of modern life.

7.   Air pollution in this area, I understand, is quite serious.

8.   Some of the problems with university admissions must be solved.

9.   Although these chances are usually intended to be beneficial, they may produce side effects.

10. Although television could, if used creatively, enrich the activities of children and families, it now only undermines them.

11.  People making long commutes are at a higher risk for a host of maladies.

12.  We certainly need laws, but the cure comes not from laws but from the transforming of the human heart.

13.  No one can possibly achieve any real and lasting success by conforming to conventional ways of thinking.

14.  It’s worth remembering that IQ isn’t quite the same thing as intelligence.

15.  The long-term consequences of inactivity are quite serious to the well-being of our population.

16.  Competition may lead to unexpected problems.

17.  Inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviors cause at least 30,000 avoidable deaths each year in the US.

18.  The burning of high-sulfur coal produces a poisonous drizzle, which affects 30% of the world.

19.  Every day, factories and automobiles put harmful gases into the air, which causes air pollution.

20.  TV viewing has an undesirable/detrimental effect on the reading habits of children.

21.  Students will be deprived of the opportunities to grow in nonacademic areas.

22.  In a dormitory, you often run into people with conflicting lifestyles.

23.  “Forgetting” is often cited as a negative for the traditional school-time schedule that includes a long vacation each year.

24.  The world grows globally; you won’t get far in business and finance today without a thorough understanding and vision.

25.  Child development experts are wondering whether this rich diet of extracurricular activities might make some kids sick.

26.  Some experts charge that the enrichment efforts can actually be counterproductive to child’s overall learning experience.

27.  Some people are afraid that technology will dehumanize schools and isolate students.

28.  The power and versatility of digital technology will raise new concerns about individual privacy and commercial confidentiality.

29.  An alarming number of rivers and lakes in Eastern Europe are ecologically dead.

30.  Many changes always involve tradeoffs, and the benefits of the information society will carry costs.

31.  From women’s point of view, this custom is outdated.

32.  From the student’s standpoint, these exams are too hard.

33.  For too many young people today, citizenship is an abstract concept.

34.  In spite of many years of research, many questions remain unanswered, and many answers remain questionable.

XVI. 比較

1.   Regular exercise is as important as dietary habits./ They are equally important.

2.   People in Asia enjoy the same McDonald’s and surf the Internet as their counterpart in America.

3.   Some universities give the same amount of money to their students’ sports activities as they give to their university libraries.

4.   The process of doing something is more important than the final product.

5.   Some hand-made items are superior in many respects to machine-made ones.

6.   Clothes that are deemed handsome in one period are declared downright ugly in the next.

7.   To some Turks, wearing Western attire instead of traditional garments was akin to heresy.

8.   Attending a live performance is more enjoyable than watching the same event on television.

9.   Studying with a group has/provides/produces/generates more benefits than problems.

10. Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher.

11. It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big city.

12. Studies have shown that crime rates on campus are generally lower than those outside campus.

13. Left-handed people are more likely to succeed in business than right-handed people.

14. We have been recycling twice as much aluminum and paper as we did in previous years.

15. The cure rate among patients in this hospital is about twice that of the Clapton hospital.

Model sentences–6. 好處

Posted: 2014 年 01 月 10 日 in Writing
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XIV. 好處

1.    Studies show that community service enhances academic achievement, lowers the dropout rate and improves test scores.

2.    People suffering from the attention deficit disorder can stay tuned to a computer much longer than they can to a trained therapist.

3.    Greater health benefits can be achieved by increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration of physical activity.

4.    Those who are inactive can improve their health and well-being by becoming moderately active on a regular basis.

5.    Computers are especially effective in enabling children to better understand core concepts in science.

6.    Homework is good for character in that it develops habits of discipline and self-reliance.

7.    The ideas and opinions you discover can give you insight into different countries and cultures.

8.    Historical studies enable us to learn from others’ mistakes so as not to repeat them.

9.    This is a remarkable development because it empowers students of all ages to learn on their own, at their own rates.

10.  Your support makes it possible for me to finish my project.

11.  We can give the house a new coat of paint to make it more attractive.

12.  The cell phone allows you to open savings accounts and time deposits, or make regular wire transfers.

13.  By studying in the US, you will improve your ability to understand American citizens, their subtleties in verbal and non-verbal communication, and their cultural patterns.

14.  Homework forces the student to learn to budget time, follow written and oral directions, and make better use of out-of-school time.

15.  Competition provides the impetus for one to work hard.

16.  The fair provides the opportunity for people to display their products.

17.  As most of these students are British, there are good opportunities for contact with English speaking students and for learning about the British way of life.

18.  Machines provide the kind of conveniences our ancestors never dared dream of.

19.  Living in dormitories saves time and money, for students don’t need to travel a long way from where they live to school.

20.  Computers have made life easier and more convenient.

21.  The convenience of the automobile frees people from the need to live near rail lines or stations.

22.  By and large, technology is a positive force that can help us solve even our most vexing potential problems.

23.  Making information technology an integral part of learning experience will provide a number of benefits.

24.  Learning about the past has great value for those of us living in the present.

25.  The poem is worth reading.

26.  It’s worth all the time and effort to build the log cabin.

27.  The money invested in this effort will clearly be well spent.

28.  They deserve special thanks for the intelligence and care they lavished on this project.

29.  The biggest benefit of regular exercise may be the creation of greater lean body mass, which burns calories more efficiently and keeps weight in check.

30.  When a computer is hooked up to the Internet, there’s no end to the answers available to the inquisitive mind.

31.  Having children do household chores fosters responsibility.

32.  Running increases the efficiency of the heart and lungs and it also helps the body develop greater physical endurance.

33.  Play encourages independent thinking and allows the children to negotiate their relationships with their peers.

34.  Space exploration has contributed to advances in communications, weather observation, and navigation.

 

Model sentences–5. 作法

Posted: 2014 年 01 月 10 日 in Writing
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XIII. 作法

1.   There are many things we can do to solve the problem.

2.   Citizens can participate in preserving the environment in several ways.

3.   We can help by recycling aluminum cans and paper.

4.   Some people believe that going to class should be optional for students.

5.   Students at universities often have a choice of places to live.

6.   In this way, you can decide which techniques work best for you.

7.   There are many ways we can work on improving our English outside of class. For example, we should speak English as much as possible. In addition, we should read as many magazines in English as we have time for. Watching English-speaking TV programs can also be helpful.

8.   When research priorities are being set for science, education, or any other area, the most important questions to consider is: How many people’s lives will be improved if the results are successful?

9.    The choice should be based on several considerations such as when and how to release the information.

10. This is a dilemma—invest, and risk going bankrupt, or not invest and risk losing our share of the market.

11. We can use the money to support the arts or to protect the environment.

12. Studying abroad has been a popular choice for international students.

13. It is a good idea to learn the basics of how a credit card works and the consequences of misusing your credit card.

14. Some people prefer to study in their own country, while others deliberately target a business school in another country as a stepping stone to an international career.

15. Seek out a program that offers a mix of student nationalities, backgrounds and cultures.

16. Choosing a university is one of life’s most important decisions.

17. Many young people choose a specific, vocationally-oriented field of study that they believe will guarantee them a good job.

18. Other students adopt a more strategic approach, opting for an education that will prepare them for the future careers that they are predicted to experience during their lifetime.

19. By studying in the US, you will improve your ability to understand American citizens.

20. In order to improve the quality of instruction, all faculty should be required to spend time working outside the academic world.

21. To be successful, companies should trust their workers and give them as much freedom as possible.

22. The most effective way for a businessperson to maximize profits over a long period of time is to follow the highest standards of ethics.

23. A company’s long-term success is primarily dependent on the job satisfaction felt by the company’s employees.

24. Workers rely heavily on mass transportation and long for the freedom and flexibility of the automobile.

25. We can communicate with him face-to-face, use the telephone, or write a memo, depending on the nature of the message.

26. The best way to lose weight is to avoid eating fatty foods.

27. Cardiac pacemakers keep many people from dying of abnormalities in the heart rhythm.

28. Parents should set limits on the amount of viewing and the specific programs viewed.

29. We should eat soy on a regular basis as a way of preventing fatigue and depression.

 

Model sentences–4. 陳述

Posted: 2014 年 01 月 10 日 in Writing
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XII. 陳述

1.    It is quite clear that personal computers improve the efficiency and accuracy of even very talented people.

2.    The 16th and 17th centuries witnessed a sweeping change in the scientific view of the universe.

3.    The people we remember best are the ones who broke the rules.

4.    The most important quality for a leader to have is not the ability to plan and solve problems but rather the ability to communicate ideas and inspire people to work.

5.    John faces the biggest challenge of his career.

6.    In our modern society, people must constantly learn to gain a competitive edge.

7.    The teacher was faced with the task of breaking the news to the student’s parents.

8.    In some countries, TV and radio programs are carefully censored for offensive language and behavior.

9.    Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water.

10.  The stark truth is that in much of the world where isn’t enough water, and where there is, it is being wasted, mismanaged and polluted on a grand scale.

11.  Symptoms of the water crisis are everywhere.

12.  Movies are popular all over the world.

13.  Everywhere there are clear signs that people are becoming more respectful of one another’s differences.

14.  The number of single men over 40 years old in the community is increasing.

15.  The number of patients with respiratory illness has been increasing.

16.  Each urbanite produces an average of 440 kg of rubbish annually, far more than our current urban sewage facilities can handle.

17.  In this age of automation, many people complain that humans are becoming subservient to machines.

18.  As the global population expands, more conflict over who gets access to water seems inevitable.

19.  Location has traditionally been one of the most important determinants of a business’s success.

20.  Thrift has long been seen as a virtue in Asia.

21.  Among all the newspapers, Wall Street Journal is my favorite.

22.  As a photographer, I find soap bubbles particularly attractive.

23.  The drug affects different people in different ways.

24.  Computers have pervaded modern society and affected nearly every aspect of daily life.

25.  In recent decades, TV viewing outside the school appears to have more influence on student learning and conduct.

26.  During the past few years, the city has undergone a physical and economic transformation on an record-breaking scale, and at an astonishing speed.

27.  Over the years, the computer has become an integral tool for conducting research.

28.  Lakes and streams have become so acidified that the populations of trout, salmon, and other fish are being destroyed.

29.  Most experiences in our lives that seemed difficult at the time become valuable lessons for the future.

30.  For the past three months, things have gone from bad to worse.

31.  Little by little, humans encroach upon fragile wetlands and wear out sprawling grasslands.

32.  As habitats changed, some species survived by adapting, while others died out quickly.

33.  As a society evolves and changes, so will its ethics and the resultant behavior.

34.  Things have changed a lot since we were young.

35.  The society has changed over the years, especially in the way in which it views risks.

36.  Under these propitious conditions, Britain was able to emerge in the 18th century as the world’s leading commercial power, vanquishing its foreign rivals and extending its imperial sway across the globe.

37.  The world becomes smaller because of better communications and transportation.

38.  What used to be a quiet village has gradually turned into a busy holiday resort.

39.  As technologies change, many workers will lose their jobs.

40.  Programs such as Sesame Street can produce desirable effects on children.

41.  Any company that tries to control employees’ behavior through a strict system of rewards and punishments will soon find such controls have a negative effect on employee morale.

42.  This aspect of your business-school education is one of the most crucial and far-reaching, for once out of school, your network contacts will serve you for the rest of your career.

43.  Before World War II, a high school education was adequate for satisfying most people’s needs, but new problems began to emerge and only college education could provide the kind of knowledge and skills necessary to deal with new challenges.

44.  The lack of these skills among children leads to social and emotional difficulties, aggressive behavior, peer withdrawal, and academic difficulties.

45.  What happened to manual workers may happen to all other workers.

Model sentences–3. 引證/推理/注意

Posted: 2014 年 01 月 10 日 in Writing
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IX. 引證

1.     According to a recent report, the government will provide tax incentives and other financial inducements to encourage companies to relocate here.

2.     Most financial planners stress it is important for young students to educate themselves on money management skills, including the appropriate use of credit cards.

3.     Experts around the world agree that the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, must be reduced.

4.     The World Bank estimates that air pollution causes nearly millions of deaths worldwide each year.

5.     Research shows that by the year 2025, two-thirds of the world’s population will be affected by water shortages.

6.     Studies have shown that academic competition such as SAT, or GRE has become a much hated word for some college-bound youngsters.

X. 推理

1.    As a consumer, we may run into all kinds of problems.

2.    One day we will be able to travel to other stars and encounter extraterrestrial life.

3.    It is possible that by the year 2025, two-thirds of the world’s population will be affected by water shortages.

4.    It is not certain that we can mortgage this house for a loan.

5.    If you take risks, you may get an A or an F on a creative assignment.

6.    If current rates of habitat destruction continue, we may destroy half the world’s currently living species within the next 100 years.

7.    If nothing is done, our ecosystems will be damaged beyond repair.

8.    But if you play it safe, chances are that you will always get just a safe, average grade.

9.    Chances are good that the factors affecting amphibians are also taking a toll on other species.

10.  Maybe if you build cars people really want, you don’t have to give them away.

11.  Sometimes we must first attend to staples, like food and clothing and dreams come second.

12.  People who eat a balanced diet are more likely to live longer and healthy lives.

13.  There might also be pressures at home from well-meaning parents who frequently express their expectations that the student will get good grades, meet all responsibilities well and on time, and participate in family activities.

14.  Female athletes tend to attribute failure to their lack of effort or skill while male athletes point to external factors such as luck or the strength of the opposition.

15.  Today’s companies must think globally; if they fail to keep up, they will be swallowed up. It will work as long as you follow my advice.

16.  As long as the government can keep the dollar from falling in value, the economy will improve.

17.  When a computer is hooked up to the Internet, there’s no end to the answers available to the inquisitive mind.

18.  Once you get to the articles, it’s easy to search for entries by keyword or browse by topic.

19.  Whether you like it or not, you have to exercise regularly.

20.  Shopping can be an exciting experience, whether you are buying or browsing.

21.  Whether promoting a product or a person, an advertising campaign is most effective when it appeals to emotion rather than to reason.

22.  Whether riding a train, taking a lunch break, or just walking down the street, you have instant access to banking services 24 hours a day.

23.  By obtaining a good education, an individual is able to select the field that he or she wants to enter, regardless of his or her economic background or social position.

24.  No matter what I say, she always thinks I’m wrong.

25.  Notwithstanding/Despite the rise in prices, luxury cars are still much in demand.

26.  Unless the author takes this factor into consideration, the argument is not persuasive.

27.  They must realize what’s happening, or else the company will collapse.

28.  We had a good time, except that the weather was cold.

29.  He wouldn’t give me the money, even if I begged for it.

XI. 注意

1.      Scholars have noted that in this society human needs rather than economic productivity determine social worth.

2.      Teachers, parents and administrators who support regular homework for students point out that it is a device for keeping the home and school in touch.

3.      People are concerned about the following aspects of a job, namely, the workplace, the salary, the time involved, the skills needed, and the job-titles.

4.      You should pay attention to your teacher.

5.      I can’t keep your mind on what I’m doing.

6.      These students are intensely focused on their instructors’ words.

7.      The conference will focus on the issue of environmental protection.

8.      His article drew attention to the lack of funding in adult education.

9.      The figure calls attention to the famine in Africa.

10.  The report highlights the seriousness of the problem.

 

IV. 擁有

1.      There is a growing need for trained doctors and nurses.

2.      There are many people who prefer to prepare and eat food at home.

3.      There are many options for shopping in this city with something to suit everybody’s taste.

4.      Being an only child has both advantages and disadvantages.

5.      Computers have a wide array/variety/range/number/series/collection of applications.

6.      There are several types of trees in the garden.

7.      Satellites are of different kinds and have different purposes: communications, weather observation, navigational aids.

8.      Museums and their collections are of several kinds: general, historical, scientific, regional, commercial.

9.      London’s shops trade in anything imaginable: from hand-made crafts to rare books; from 17th century antiques to pets, and much more.

10.  This is a cosmopolitan city with plenty to see and do.

11.  Researchers knew that the drug was not without danger.

12.  We cannot do without computers.

13.  With a little effort, just about any child can learn to enjoy books.

14.  Without cars and trucks, there will be no accidents.

V. 缺少

1.      The boy lacks confidence.

2.      The plant died for lack of water.

3.      The Japanese government seems to be short on ideas and leadership.

4.      There is no shortage of good sales books.

VI. 解釋

1.      Because some people have a close relationship with their pets, they treat their pets as members of their family.

2.      Since students are increasingly turning to electronic means for information gathering, a website has been used to disseminate the messages to students.

3.      Given the potential benefits of using case studies for communication research, this article discusses the RS Campaign as a case study of a successful drinking prevention campaign.

4.      When people succeed, it is because of hard work. Luck has nothing to do with success.

5.      That is why many schools offer a variety of hands-on learning experience.

6.      I like to read this newspaper. One reason is that the news is always reported accurately.

7.      One of the reasons for his success is that he takes one step at a time; he never aims to reach the top in a single session.

8.      The reason should be obvious: he doesn’t engage in the excesses of Dennis Rodman.

9.      People listen to music for different reasons and at different times.

10.  There are many reasons why many women are waiting until they are 30 years old or older to have their first baby.

11.  International students usually list three primary reasons for choosing to study abroad.

12.  Just because he is a policeman doesn’t mean he won’t ever break the law.

VII. 因果

1.      For this reason, scientists agree that objectivity is a practical impossibility.

2.      He bought the encyclopedia for studying at home.

3.      A pet is generally kept for pleasure.

4.      As a result, we have a choice of studying at home.

5.      Many people are unemployed as a result of the economic slump.

6.      Sometimes success in life comes from taking risks or chances.

7.  Oil prices have rocketed, thanks to a record output this year.

8.  His negligence may have contributed to the disaster.

9.  These accidents can be attributed to drunk driving.

10.  The increasing longevity of human beings is attributable to improved health care, environmental sanitation, and the control of communicable diseases.

11.  Toxic chemicals released into the air are the blame for some of mankind’s diseases.

12.  This incident gave rise to speculation about his health.

13.  More attention to road safety can result in a decrease in accidents.

14.  This information leads to the arrest of the criminals.

15.  That commercial induced me to buy the expensive jacket.

16.  The report prompted me to write to him.

VIII. 舉例

1.      For example, academic competitions such as quizzes, exams, science fairs, force young people to work hard. (for instance, for one thing)

2.      A notorious example was Salomon Brother’s attempt to corner the Treasure securities market.

3.      Based on my experience and observation, I have learned that “fun” is also a great motivator.

4.      Corporations are showing increasing ethical awareness. 3M has been a leader in waste-reduction efforts with its “3P’s” program. McDonald’s responded quickly to consumer demands to replace styrene packaging with paper. Volkswagen and BMW are making efforts to create recyclable automobiles. These ongoing efforts illustrate corporate commitment to a healthy natural environment.