Archive for the ‘Vocabulary’ Category

Using exact words: 1. Introduction

Posted: 2014 年 03 月 18 日 in Using exact words
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Using Exact Words系列文章共四篇,每篇皆有25句用來解析常用單字的替換用法,如It’s a big problem.→It’s a big hurdle.,因為hurdle有跨欄的涵義,可具體展現problem的概念,像hurdle這種more graphic, powerful, persuasive的單字常見於英美各大報紙,也常用於專業商務人士的溝通,Dr. William A. Vance of Yale University將這類單字稱為“winner’s vocabulary”。

阿賓拜讀語研學院出版的偷看耶魯大師的單字講義” (William A. Vance, 2013),發現內容很適合台灣高中職程度的學生學習,若熟用則可同時增進字彙與寫作能力,故整理成簡單講義供教學之用,每篇皆有25題例句,文末附上參考解答,老師們看解答後應可大致理解為何替換用字較好,若仍有疑義,備課請參閱該書,有詳細解釋與更多例句和補充用法。

教學方法可將學生分組,將例句當翻譯練習或作業,讓學生英譯中後想出或找出更精準的用字來代替目標字,一來翻譯可督促學生去了解句意(learn from the context),二來有助於推敲目標字的同義字。如老師們有其他教法願意分享,也請不吝賜教,謝謝!

  1. Their marketing budget will be reduced next year.
  2. The manager told his goals to the team.
  3. We try to finish by December.
  4. Parents want to make a better future for their children.
  5. She said that August is the slowest month for business.
  6. She hurried to find an answer to the question.
  7. The first action toward good health is to exercise regularly.
  8. Let’s see the situation from another angle.
  9. The automobile industry has several challenges.
  10. John is the important person on the team.
  11. It is hard to discover the source of the noise.
  12. What kind of schedule do you have in mind?
  13. I want to emphasize our company’s experience in manufacturing.
  14. He will report us on the project at the meeting.
  15. He will send you an email with his comment.
  16. The due date is three p.m.
  17. Given this situation, I support David’s suggestion.
  18. The school decreased its staff by ten percent.
  19. The economic future in Australia is worsening.
  20. Our engineer led the development of the software.
  21. The research will pay attention to air pollution.
  22. You should make your presentation better with some pictures.
  23. Cancer survival depends on early treatment.
  24. The complaints suggest problems in our customer service.
  25. Let me see if I can find that information.

Answers:

1. cut 2. share…with 3. aim 4. build 5. noted
6. raced 7. step 8. view 9. faces 10. key
11. pinpoint 12. timeline 13. highlight 14. update 15. feedback
16. deadline 17. background 18. downsized 19. outlook 20. spearheaded
21. focus on 22. jazz…up 23. hinges on 24. point to 25. track down
廣告

Using exact words: 2

Posted: 2014 年 03 月 18 日 in Using exact words
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  1. Their success comes from solid planning.
  2. We looked over your plan and have some questions.
  3. The staff will solve the technical problems.
  4. The town tried hard to find a location for the mall.
  5. Workers are preparing for a fight over pensions.
  6. Our decision is given power by governmental regulations.
  7. Commuters begin to rush into the station around seven a.m.
  8. The government started a website for consumer complaints.
  9. She quickly understood the importance of the results.
  10. How can we connect the gap between our plans and budget?
  11. Housing prices will rise in the next three years.
  12. The stock market fell on Tuesday.
  13. We need to evaluate the benefits of advertising against its costs.
  14. Our customers vary from students to retired people.
  15. He tried to move the conversation away from politics.
  16. Our department has been busy with job applications.
  17. They understand the limit of the project.
  18. The recession may help new economic policies.
  19. It’s difficult to judge their level of interest.
  20. The trade surplus has been helping economic growth.
  21. We have no certain/definite information at this time.
  22. How could we change the magazine’s content to increase sales?
  23. The government began a big rescue operation.
  24. Thank you for your fast/quick reply to my email.
  25. The business condition will improve next year.

Answers:

1. stems from 2. examined 3. iron out 4. wrestled with 5. gearing up
6. driven 7. flood 8. launched 9. grasped 10. bridge
11. soar 12. plunged 13. weigh 14. range 15. steer
16. swamped 17. scope 18. spur 19. gauge 20. fueling
21. concrete 22. tweak 23. mammoth 24. speedy 25. climate

Using exact words: 3

Posted: 2014 年 03 月 18 日 in Using exact words
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  1. Computer technology has improved our ability to treat cancer.
  2. The boss said that he was unhappy with our progress.
  3. We need to direct more money into advertising.
  4. Most citizens approved the government’s efforts to lower taxes.
  5. Nokia has got fifteen percent of the market.
  6. We need advice on completing the tax form.
  7. Public opposition to the sales tax began to appear.
  8. The effect of the president’s comments was dramatic.
  9. The translation of the manual should be improved.
  10. The seminar aims at new employees.
  11. I need to think about the information.
  12. It is important to improve your leadership skills.
  13. He told me the news.
  14. At our next meeting, we will deal with school safety.
  15. We arrange/organize the meeting so that Peter spoke first.
  16. She always wants to search all options before deciding.
  17. The committee listened to a lot/variety/range/sum/collection of opinions.
  18. Our ways to measure include: number of new customers, website traffic, and monthly profit.
  19. I wanted to inform you of changes in emergency procedures.
  20. The culture barrier is a major problem.
  21. We will make/design a seminar to meet your requirements.
  22. She is doing a lot of things right now.
  23. The commercial shows our desire to reach women.
  24. We have reached a critical stage in the negotiations.
  25. We will consider your proposal again next year.

Answers:

1. sharpened 2. signaled 3. channel 4. applauded 5. captured
6.guidance 7. surface 8. impact 9. polished 10. targets
11.digest 12. strengthen 13. relayed 14. address 15. structure
16. explore 17. spectrum 18. metrics 19. alert…to 20. hurdle
21. tailor 22. juggling 23. reflects 24. juncture 25. revisit

Using exact words: 4

Posted: 2014 年 03 月 18 日 in Using exact words
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  1. She chose to respond to the complaint by email.
  2. High energy prices threaten to disturb the Japanese economy.
  3. The city developed a plan to reduce the risk of accidents.
  4. She thinks we’re heading in the right way.
  5. My schedule for next week is able to change.
  6. The base of effective negotiation is trust.
  7. The costs are higher than we expected.
  8. The secretary’s behavior is strange/confusing.
  9. Could you make clear your point?
  10. The meeting makes/causes/produces a lot of good ideas.
  11. Our hospital has entered the area of AIDS research.
  12. There were a large number of emails.
  13. He helped her with the practical details of starting a store in London.
  14. My career has taken me on an unusual path.
  15. He has the necessary skill to do the job.
  16. The business environment in Korea is difficult to understand and deal with.
  17. Since our budget is tight, we must save on travel.
  18. Let me try to plan/arrange a compromise.
  19. I’d like to use your sales experience for this project.
  20. Every company wants to increase its profits.
  21. The report supported his claims about age discrimination.
  22. The lower price was the cause for increased sales.
  23. The agenda for our meeting should become definite by Friday.
  24. The survey included a wide range of people.
  25. The diagram contains our plans for next year.

Answers:

1. elected 2. derail 3. strategy 4. direction 5. flexible
6. foundation 7. envisioned 8. puzzling 9. clarify 10. generates
11. arena 12. astronomical 13. mechanics 14. trajectory 15. expertise
16. navigate 17. economize 18. orchestrate 19. leverage 20. maximize
21. buttress 22. catalyst 23. crystalize 24. encompassed 25. encapsulates

This post originated from a speech handout by Prof. Lin Hsiu-chun (a.k.a. Spring) of NKNU, who lectured about teaching of writing in vocational high schools at TCHCVS in November, 2013. The speech was not only informative but also inspiring. Focusing on vocabulary as well as pronunciation, the excerpt below is fundamental to English learning and interesting enough for students to have some fun. Personally, Ben was privileged to be one of her students in college years. Thanks to her training, I enjoy my teaching career very much and treasure bittersweet memories of writing apology letters during my salad days.

Do you know how English words are formed?

  1. Adding affixes: electrocardiograph, pandemonium, chocoholic, netaholic, vitaholic (The longer the word, the easier it is.)

  2. Compounding:  baby-sitter, cupcake, hand-me-down, hand-me-up

  3. Blending: motel, medicare, modicon, smog, brunch, ginormous

  4. Clipping: bike, dorm, lab, vet, gym, exam, ad, deli, limo, photo, auto, bus, flu, fridge

  5. Coining: dink, ROM, CAI, radar, UFO, ASAP, BTW, TGIF

  6. Eponym: sandwich, masochist, sadist, boycott, china, laconic

  7. Onomatopoeia: buzz, rattle, splash, sizzle, tinkle

Reasons why English is difficult to learn

  1. The bandage was wound around the wound.

  2. The farm was used to produce produce.

  3. The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.

  4. We must polish the Polish furniture.

  5. He could lead if he would get the lead out.

  6. The soldier decided to desert the dessert in the desert.

  7. Since there is no time like the present, he thought it was time to present the present.

  8. A bass was pointed on the head of the bass drum.

  9. When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes.

  10. I did not object to the object.

  11. The insurance was invalid for the invalid.

  12. There was a row among the oarsmen about how to row.

  13. They were too close to the door to close it.

  14. The buck does funny things when the does are present.

  15. A seamstress and a sewer fell down into a sewer line.

  16. To help with planting, the farmer taught his sow to sow.

  17. The wind was too strong to wind the sail.

  18. After a number of injections, my jaw got number.

  19. I had to subject the subject to a series of tests.

  20. How can I intimate this to my most intimate friend?

  21. Archery requires a bow and an arrow. A boat has a bow.

  22. Upon seeing the tear in the painting, I shed a tear.

I take it you already know

Of TOUGH and BOUGH and COUGH and DOUGH.

Others may stumble, but not you

On HICCOUGH, THOROUGH, LOUCH, and THROUGH.

Well done! And now you wish, perhaps,

To learn of less familiar traps.

 

Beware of HEARD, a dreadful word,

That looks like BEARD and sounds like BIRD

And DEAD—it’s said like BED, not BEAD.

For goodness’ sake, don’t call it DEED!

 

Watch out for MEAT and GREAT and THREAT.

They rhyme with SUITE and STRAIGHT and DEBT.

 

A MOTH is not a MOTH in MOTHER,

Nor BOTH in BOTHER, BROTH in BROTHER.

And HERE is not a match for THERE,

Nor DEAR and FEAR for PEAR and BEAR.

 

And then there’s DOSE and ROSE and LOSE.

Just look them up—and GOOSE and CHOOSE,

And CORK and WORK and CARD and WARD,

And DO and GO, then THWART and CART.

 

Come, come, I’ve made a start.

A dreadful language? Man alive,

I’d mastered it when I was five!

In English, onomatopoeia is omnipresent. The following are two tables regarding sounds and motions of animals and objects. Learning onomatopoeia is not difficult because it is easier to learn new words when the formation of a word comes directly from a sound associated with what it is named.

For instructors, the world-famous nursing rhyme Old MacDonald Had a Farm serves perfectly as an exercise to practice the onomatopoeia below. More fun is expected if you group students to have a song relay until they run out of names and sounds of animals. For learners, animal-related vocabularies and expressions play a significant role in English. You may notice some expressions like “as busy as a bee” or “dance like an animal.” So, if you are set to have a large vocabulary, learning onomatopoeia is inevitable. Now, let’s start from learning sounds of animals and objects.

Sounds, motions, and adjective of animal

ANIMAL

SOUND

MOTION

ADJECTIVE

ass bray jog stupid
bear growl lumber clumsy
bee hum flit busy
beetle drone crawl horrid
bird chirp, whistle fly swift
bull bellow charge angry
cat purr, meow steal sleek
cockerel crow strut proud
cow moo, low wander stolid
crow caw flap black
dog bark, growl run faithful
donkey bray trot obstinate
duck quack waddle waddling
elephant trumpet amble ponderous
frog croak leap clammy
hen cackle, cluck strut domestic
horse neigh, whinnie gallop noble
lamb bleat frisk gentle
lion roar prowl tawny

monkey

chatter

climb

agile

mouse

squeak

scamper

timid

owl

hoot

flit

tawny

parrot

talk, screech

flit

saucy

pig

grunt, squeal

trot

fat

pigeon

coo

flutter

gentle

rabbit

squeal

leap

timid

snake

hiss

glide

loathsome

sparrow

chirp

flit

little

turkey

gobble

strut

plump

If you want to learn more about animal sounds, here it is!

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_animal_sounds

Old MacDonald had a farm

Ylvis–The Fox

 In addition to the onomatopoeia of animals, objects in our daily life have their individual sounds in the same way. Please learn more from the following table.

Sounds of objects

OBJECT

SOUND

OBJECT

SOUND

airplane

zoom

kettle

sing

bell

ring, peal, toll

leaf

rustle, whisper

bell (large)

chime

machine

scream

bell (small)

tinkle

paper

crinkle, rustle

brake

grind, screech

pistol

crack

breeze

murmur

raindrop

patter

chain

clank, rattle

silk

rustle

clock

tick, chime

siren

wail

coin

clink, jingle

skirt

swish

cork

pop

smoke (from pipes)

puff

dish

clatter, rattle

steam

hiss

electric fan

whir

telephone

buzz

engine

throb, purr, chug, puff, splutter

thunder

peak, crash, mutter, roar, roll, rumble, clap

explosion

blast

traffic

roar

feet

tramp, shuffle, stamp

train

rumble

fire

crackle

trumpet

blare, trump, toot

glass

tinkle

vehicle (heavy)

rumble

guitar

strum

voice (distant)

murmur

gun

boom

watch

tick

guns (distant)

throb

water

drip, bubble, lap, splash

heart

throb, beat

whip

crack, lash

hinge

creak

wind

sigh, whistle, whisper, shriek, howl, scream

hoof

thunder, clatter

wood

crackle, creak

horn

toot, hoot, honk